The effects of any budget/program decisions made since the information was collected during 1997-98 are NOT reflected in the National Security Space Road Map (NSSRM).

(U) Electromagnetic (EM) Effects and Hardening

-Road Map
-Text Version

Overview (U):

(U) This Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) program is developing measurement and predictive techniques for electromagnetic (EM) effects. New EM hardening technologies are being developed, evaluated, and implemented into operational and new systems, and subsystems. Experiments will consist of both narrowband and ultrawideband experiments and planned to be conducted on advanced aircraft such as the F-22 and B-2 and evaluation of commercial GPS receiver units. The AFRL has also developed proposals for an Arnold Engineering Development Center satellite test chamber.

Description (U):

(U) The EM Effects & Hardening Subthrust provides a predictive understanding of high power EM Effects arising from deliberately produced electromagnetic radiation. Effects data and modeling directly support other HPM Weapons Applications (air superiority, suppression of enemy air defenses, ...), define HPM Source parameter goals, and provide critical hardening data and fixes to aerospace System Program Offices (SPOs) and industry.

(U) In the Specific Asset Effects & Hardening Programs, a dedicated F-16 testbed has been the most visible & unique asset, and involved three major efforts :
- (U) Aircraft RF Effects Testing Technique Development
- (U) F-16 RF Effects Study & Hardening Recommendations
- (U) HPM Suicide/Fratricide Study in Support of HPM ASP

(U) Although the F-16 was found to be relatively RF hard, tests revealed some susceptible "hot" pathways. Hardening recommendations were developed for these cables/systems. The F-16 testbed aircraft was returned to Rome Labs during FY95, and AFRL will receive an operational F-16 for further low-level testing and SPO support. The FY94 LANTIRN (Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night) Phase I RF Effects & Hardening program was a tri-party effort involving AFRL, the SPO, and Martin Marietta; and testing of the F-16 plus LANTIRN combination is underway. Outyear plans call for potential RF effects programs and SPO support involving the F-22, B-2, and other Advanced Technology Aircraft.

(U) AFRL is also conducting numerous RF Effects & Hardening efforts involving missiles, C3 hardware, and support systems. The I-HAWK program tested a complete I-HAWK air defense missile battery - missiles, launchers, radars, and communications & computer vans. A Final Report to ACC is forthcoming, and outyear plans call for I-HAWK hardening and assessment. Testing of foreign missiles (ORLON FIBER, HAVE IRIS,...) and command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I) systems is a continuing effort. AFRL is also involved in a number of international cooperative programs with our NATO allies. Independent tests of GPS receivers are being conducted in four different countries. RF Penetration Tests of blast hardened Norwegian aircraft shelters are supporting NATO requirements as well as specific AFRL HPM FTAs. Finally, the French will be conducting aircraft RF effects testing at the AFRL, and will be sharing their results with the US.

(U) The High Energy Microwave Laboratory (HEML) is a unique facility for performing precision low- and high-power RF testing of complete aircraft in a controlled indoor environment. FY94 witnessed major upgrades to include -
- (U) Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Sources & A Greater Variety of Narrowband Sources
- (U) Improved Data Acquisition Hardware & Software with Fiber Optics Data Links
- (U) A Twenty-Ton Crane and Aircraft Sling for Test Asset Manipulation

(U) The ELLIPTICUS facility complements the HEML and can perform low-power, low-cost outdoor testing of very large aircraft. The AFRL ELLIPTICUS has become a Tri-Service standard with AFRL-provided facilities at Kirtland AFB (Air Force), Patuxent River (Navy), Huntsville AL (Army), and one site yet to be determined for B-2 testing.

(U) The AFRL developed Mode Stirred Technique allows RF effects testing on mid-sized assets at rates 10 - 100 times that of conventional methods. This technique has been validated by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and makes practical programs hitherto prohibitive because of time or cost. AFRL Mode Stirred applications have included LANTIRN, various missiles, large aircraft interiors, and is being used by AEDC for satellite RF testing. Finally, AFRL has sponsored the development of Small, Non-Perturbing Sensors in cooperation with Armstrong Lab. Measuring RF fields in confined spaces without disturbing normal systems operation is a major problem, and these sensors have applications ranging from small missiles to live animals.

(U) AFRL is also participating in a number of ongoing Long-Range Support Activities involving database, computer code, and MIL Standard development. For instance, AFRL is supporting AF Information Warfare Center in developing the AF HPM & UWB Damage/Upset Database - which will provide major inputs into future AF SPO and industry planning. Massively parallel computer codes have also been developed to model aircraft coupling in the time domain, and to marry EM wave coupling to aircraft circuit codes - thereby permitting practical, self-consistent TEM aircraft response modeling. Finally, AFRL develops, standardizes, and documents EM Effects Testing & Hardening MIL Standards in response to User needs; and is a key player in establishing international HIRF standards with DoD, FAA, Industry, and their European counterparts.

User Impact (U):

(U) None.

Programmatics (U):

(U) Concept/Technology.

Images (U):

(U) None.

Related Initiatives (U):
Assessments and SurvivabilityAssessments and Survivabiltiy
Source ComponentsSource Components
Weapons ApplicationsWeapons Applications
This Table Is Unclassified.

Related Requirements (U): None.

Related Categories (U):
High Power RF TechnologyHigh Power RF Weapons Technology
This Table Is Unclassified.

Road Map Placements (U):

This Table Is Unclassified.

Requirements, Funding and Additional Hotlinks (U):

(U) None.

Lead Office (U):

Air Force.

Point of Contact (U):

(U) National Security Space Road Map Team, NSSA, Open Phone: (703) 808-6040, DSN 898-6040.

Date Of Information (U):

(U) 21 November 1997


(U) For comments/suggestions contact: Office of the National Security Space Architect (NSSA), 571-432-1300.

(U) Road Map Production Date: 23 June 2001

The effects of any budget/program decisions made since the information was collected during 1997-98 are NOT reflected in the National Security Space Road Map (NSSRM).